• Can Altering the Intestinal Microbiome Reduce Wheat Sensitivity?

Can Altering the Intestinal Microbiome Reduce Wheat Sensitivity?

Amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), which are enzymes in wheat, promote intestinal dysfunction and exacerbate inflammation in response to gluten, researchers show in study of mice published in the June issue of Gastroenterology. Strategies to alter the intestinal microbiome, such as administration of bacteria with ATI-degrading capacity, might be effective for

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  • A Case of Spirochetosis That Resembles IBD

A Case of Spirochetosis That Resembles IBD

Researchers describe a patient with intestinal spirochetosis—a rare intestinal infection caused by Brachyspira aalborgi or Brachyspira pilosicoli that can involve the colon or terminal ileum and mimic inflammatory bowel diseases—in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Manasi Agrawal et al report the case of a 45-year-old man with HIV infection and an undetectable viral

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  • Are There Early Signs of Pancreatic Cancer?

Are There Early Signs of Pancreatic Cancer?

Changes in blood glucose and lipid levels occur up to 18 months before a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, researchers report in the May issue of Gastroenterology. These changes might be used in combination with other risk factors to detect pancreatic cancer at earlier stages. One reason for the high mortality

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  • Lusutrombopag Reduces Need for Platelet Transfusion in Patients With Thrombocytopenia and Chronic Liver Disease

Lusutrombopag Reduces Need for Platelet Transfusion in Patients With Thrombocytopenia and Chronic Liver Disease

Lusutrombopag, an oral small molecule agonist of the thrombopoietin receptor, achieves and maintains target platelet count in patients with chronic liver disease and thrombocytopenia undergoing invasive procedures, researchers report in a phase 3, placebo-controlled trial published in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. The drug caused no significant

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  • How Does Estrogen Receptor Signaling Promote Growth of Liver Tumors?

How Does Estrogen Receptor Signaling Promote Growth of Liver Tumors?

The G-protein–coupled estrogen receptor (GPER1) is a hepatic sensor of estrogen that regulates liver growth during development, regeneration, and tumorigenesis, researchers show in a study of zebrafish and human liver published in the May issue of Gastroenterology. Inhibitors of GPER1 might be developed for liver cancer prevention or treatment. Liver cancer

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  • Is Bariatric Surgery the Best Treatment for NAFLD?

Is Bariatric Surgery the Best Treatment for NAFLD?

Bariatric surgery completely resolves non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese patients, researchers report in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. However, The meta-analysis also found that some patients develop new or worsened features of NAFLD after these surgical weight-loss procedures. NAFLD is characterized by hepatic steatosis that

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  • Can a Food-based Diet Replace Exclusive Enteral Nutrition for Patients With Crohn’s Disease?

Can a Food-based Diet Replace Exclusive Enteral Nutrition for Patients With Crohn’s Disease?

An individualized, food-based diet with similar composition of nutrients to exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN), causes similar changes in the microbiomes of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), reduces gut inflammation, and is preferred by patients, researchers report in the April issue of Gastroenterology. Non-medical treatments are needed for patients with CD. Diet

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  • Can Surveillance be Extended or Eliminated for Some Patients With Barrett’s Esophagus?

Can Surveillance be Extended or Eliminated for Some Patients With Barrett’s Esophagus?

Two articles in the April issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology show that surveillance intervals might be lengthened or even discontinued for subgroups of patients with Barrett’s esophagus. Stable non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus (NDBE) has a low risk of progression to high-grade dysplaisa (HGD) or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), Yonne Peters et al

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Is an Endoscopic Transluminal Approach Better Than Surgery for Patients With Necrotizing Pancreatitis?

An endoscopic transluminal approach for treatment of infected necrotizing pancreatitis, compared with minimally invasive surgery, significantly reduced major complications, lowered costs, and increased quality of life, according to a randomized trial published in the March issue of Gastroenterology. Acute pancreatitis is the third most common gastrointestinal disorder in the United

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  • Is it Cost Effective to Transplant HCV-positive Livers Into HCV-negative Patients?

Is it Cost Effective to Transplant HCV-positive Livers Into HCV-negative Patients?

A Markov-based mathematical model estimates that transplanting hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive livers into HCV-negative patients who have received direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents would be cost effective and improve outcomes, researchers report in the March issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. There has been a steady increase in the number of

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  • IBD Research Highlights from 2019 ECCO Congress

IBD Research Highlights from 2019 ECCO Congress

A variety of exciting findings from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) research were presented at the Congress of the European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO), held in Copenhagen, March 7–9. Shixian Hu (Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen, The Netherlands) reported on associations between genetic factors and the microbiome in patients with IBD.

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  • REVIEW: Combining CRISPR-Cas9 and Organoid Technologies to Study Gastrointestinal Diseases

REVIEW: Combining CRISPR-Cas9 and Organoid Technologies to Study Gastrointestinal Diseases

CRISPR-Cas9 technology can be used to engineer organoids for studies of gastrointestinal development and disease pathogenesis. In the February issue of Gastroenterology, Masayuki Fujii et al review derivation of organoids from human gastrointestinal tissues and how CRISPR-Cas9 has advanced studies of the digestive system. CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology allows researchers to

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  • REVIEW: Balancing Benefit vs Risk of Immunosuppressive Therapy for IBD

REVIEW: Balancing Benefit vs Risk of Immunosuppressive Therapy for IBD

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and their treatments, particularly immunosuppressive drugs, increase risk of infections and cancers. However, by promoting mucosal healing, these agents reduce risks of infections related to intestinal lesions, malnutrition, intravenous devices, and IBD surgeries and reduce risk of cancers associated with chronic mucosal inflammation. Laurent Beaugerie and Julien Kirchgesner

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  • Can an Antibody Against IL13 Be Used to Treat Eosinophilic Esophagitis?

Can an Antibody Against IL13 Be Used to Treat Eosinophilic Esophagitis?

A monoclonal antibody against IL13 reduced histologic and endoscopic features of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in a placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, researchers report in the February issue of Gastroenterology. The antibody, called RPC4046, was well tolerated. EoE is a chronic, immune-mediated disease of the esophagus characterized by eosinophil-mediated mucosal inflammation and

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