How Does an Antibiotic Reduce Symptoms of IBS?

Rifaximin alters the intestinal microbiota to prevent inflammation and visceral hyperalgesia in stressed rats, according to the February issue of Gastroenterology. These findings could explain the ability of this antibiotic to relieve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in patients. Rifaximin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that has been approved by

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  • What are Choledochoceles?

What are Choledochoceles?

Choledochoceles are cystic dilatations of the intraduodenal portion of the common bile duct. They are often classified as Type III biliary cysts, but have distinct demographic and anatomic features, and a lower risk of malignancy than other types of choledochal cysts. In the February issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology,

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Sensitizing Colorectal Tumors to Chemotherapy

Although colorectal tumors with microsatellite instability (MSI) are usually considered to have a poor response to 5-fluorouracil–based chemotherapy, researchers have identified a subset that actually respond well to chemotherapy. These tumors express a dominant-negative form of the chaperone HSP110, according to the February issue of Gastroenterology. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is

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Is There a Way to Prevent Pancreatitis After ERCP?

Aggressive intravenous hydration with lactated Ringer’s solution reduces the incidence of pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), but is not associated with volume overload, according to a pilot study published in the February issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Pancreatitis is the leading complication of ERCP, causing considerable morbidity and

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Are IBD Drugs Safe During Pregnancy?

Researchers find no evidence that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during pregnancy, or medical treatment for IBD during pregnancy, increases risk for congenital abnormalities in children. The findings, based on a large database analysis, are published in the January issue of Gastroenterology. IBD frequently affects women of reproductive age, and is often

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  • Most Popular Gastroenterology and CGH Papers from 2013

Most Popular Gastroenterology and CGH Papers from 2013

As we begin 2014, we can’t help but look back at 2013 and all the incredible discoveries that were made by gastroenterology and hepatology researchers. Based on the year’s most-downloaded original research articles from Gastroenterology and CGH, exciting things are happening in research on inflammatory bowel diseases, gluten sensitivity, and

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Can We Treat Diarrhea by Stimulating Na+ Absorption?

Drugs designed to increase intestinal absorption of sodium might be the best approach for treatment of diarrheal diseases, according to the Advances in Translational Science article in the January issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Acute diarrheal diseases are the second leading cause of of death in children under 5 years

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Mapping HCV Infection in the Liver

Using single-cell laser capture and high-resolution analysis, researchers show that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects hepatocytes in the human liver in nonrandom clusters, whereas expression of anti-viral molecules is scattered among hepatocytes. The findings are presented in the December issue of Gastroenterology. HCV predominantly infects hepatocytes, but most hepatocytes in

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Can We Increase Survival of Patients with Gastric Cancer?

Researchers have identified factors that affect life expectancy of patients with stomach cancer, reported in the December issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Use of these factors to increase early detection of gastric adenocarcinoma could greatly increase survival times among patients. Gastric cancer is a significant cause of mortality and

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How Does a High-Fat Diet Contribute to Pancreatic Cancer?

A high-fat diet can promote development of pancreatic cancer, but cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitors prevent this process, according to a mouse study published in the December issue of Gastroenterology. The mechanisms appear to involve activation of oncogenic KRAS and upregulation of COX2, which promotes pancreatic inflammation. Increased body mass index and

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