Identification of Human Monoclonal Antibodies That Neutralize Pandemic GII.4 Noroviruses

Human monoclonal antibodies able to neutralize live human norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012—the predominant strain responsible for recent outbreaks—are reported in the December issue of Gastroenterology. Researchers analyzed these antibodies and identified the neutralizing epitopes, providing insight into the human immune response to this deadly virus. Human noroviruses are the major

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  • What is the Best Treatment Option for Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease?

What is the Best Treatment Option for Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease?

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists are effective for induction and maintenance of perianal fistula response and remission in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), a systematic review and meta-analysis shows in the December issue of Clinical Gastoenterology and Hepatology. However, there are few data on the effects on internal fistulae, and further studies

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  • Has MELD-Na Improved Outcomes of Patients on the Liver Transplant Waitlist?

Has MELD-Na Improved Outcomes of Patients on the Liver Transplant Waitlist?

Liver allocation based on model for end-stage liver disease-sodium (MELD-Na) score improved waitlist outcomes and provided significant benefit to patients with hyponatremia, researchers report in the November issue of Gastroenterology. However, there are discrepancies in transplantation survival benefit, so current rules for liver allocation might require revision, the authors state. The

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  • Hazards of Very Hot Coffee

Hazards of Very Hot Coffee

Persistent drinking of very hot coffee can cause exfoliative esophagitis due to thermal injury, researchers report in the November issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Florian Schertl et al describe the case of a 55-year-old woman with new retrosternal pain upon swallowing. She had been receiving continuous and successful proton pump inhibitor

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  • What is in Transplanted Fecal Microbiota That Cures Clostridium difficile Infection?

What is in Transplanted Fecal Microbiota That Cures Clostridium difficile Infection?

Researchers have identified a microbiota metabolite that is depleted by the antibiotic clindamycin and replaced with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), mediating its effects on recurrent Clostridioides difficile (Clostridium difficile) infection (CDI). Reporting in the November issue of Gastroenterology, the researchers propose that this bacterial metabolite, valerate, might be used in safer and

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  • What Endoscopic Techniques are Available for Weight Loss?

What Endoscopic Techniques are Available for Weight Loss?

Endoscopic techniques have been approved by the FDA for management of obesity, with many new devices and technologies in development. The pros and cons of these approaches, and the questions to be answered, are covered in a review article by Andrew C. Storm et al in the November issue of Clinical

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  • Should We Screen for HCC?

Should We Screen for HCC?

Screening patients with cirrhosis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by abdominal ultrasonography (USS) and/or measurement of serum level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is not associated with reduced mortality from this cancer, reseachers report from a matched case–control study in the October issue of Gastroenterology. Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk (1%–8%

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  • Effects of Diet, Intestinal Inflammation, and the Microbiome on Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Effects of Diet, Intestinal Inflammation, and the Microbiome on Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Diets that promote intestinal inflammation can increase risk of colorectal carcinomas associated with specific bacteria in the microbiome, researchers report in the October issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Diet-induced intestinal inflammation alters the gut microbiome to contribute to colorectal cancer risk, which might be reduced with dietary changes. Chronic inflammation

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  • Are Prebiotics or Diets Low in FODMAPs Better for Patients With Functional GI Disorders?

Are Prebiotics or Diets Low in FODMAPs Better for Patients With Functional GI Disorders?

Intermittent administration of prebiotics might be an alternative to dietary restrictions for patients with functional gut symptoms, researchers report in the October issue of Gastroenterology. A diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (low-FODMAP diet) reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and patients with gas-related symptoms can significantly

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  • Does Colony Stimulating Factor Increase Survival of Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis?

Does Colony Stimulating Factor Increase Survival of Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis?

In a pilot study from the October issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, colony stimulating factor 3 (CSF3, also called GCSF) improved liver function and increased survival times in patients with severe alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH), compared with standard therapy. Addition of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to GCSF did not improve patient outcomes. Patients

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