• What is in Transplanted Fecal Microbiota That Cures Clostridium difficile Infection?

What is in Transplanted Fecal Microbiota That Cures Clostridium difficile Infection?

Researchers have identified a microbiota metabolite that is depleted by the antibiotic clindamycin and replaced with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), mediating its effects on recurrent Clostridioides difficile (Clostridium difficile) infection (CDI). Reporting in the November issue of Gastroenterology, the researchers propose that this bacterial metabolite, valerate, might be used in safer and

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  • What Endoscopic Techniques are Available for Weight Loss?

What Endoscopic Techniques are Available for Weight Loss?

Endoscopic techniques have been approved by the FDA for management of obesity, with many new devices and technologies in development. The pros and cons of these approaches, and the questions to be answered, are covered in a review article by Andrew C. Storm et al in the November issue of Clinical

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  • Should We Screen for HCC?

Should We Screen for HCC?

Screening patients with cirrhosis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by abdominal ultrasonography (USS) and/or measurement of serum level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is not associated with reduced mortality from this cancer, reseachers report from a matched case–control study in the October issue of Gastroenterology. Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk (1%–8%

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  • Effects of Diet, Intestinal Inflammation, and the Microbiome on Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Effects of Diet, Intestinal Inflammation, and the Microbiome on Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Diets that promote intestinal inflammation can increase risk of colorectal carcinomas associated with specific bacteria in the microbiome, researchers report in the October issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Diet-induced intestinal inflammation alters the gut microbiome to contribute to colorectal cancer risk, which might be reduced with dietary changes. Chronic inflammation

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  • Are Prebiotics or Diets Low in FODMAPs Better for Patients With Functional GI Disorders?

Are Prebiotics or Diets Low in FODMAPs Better for Patients With Functional GI Disorders?

Intermittent administration of prebiotics might be an alternative to dietary restrictions for patients with functional gut symptoms, researchers report in the October issue of Gastroenterology. A diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (low-FODMAP diet) reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and patients with gas-related symptoms can significantly

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  • Does Colony Stimulating Factor Increase Survival of Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis?

Does Colony Stimulating Factor Increase Survival of Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis?

In a pilot study from the October issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, colony stimulating factor 3 (CSF3, also called GCSF) improved liver function and increased survival times in patients with severe alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH), compared with standard therapy. Addition of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to GCSF did not improve patient outcomes. Patients

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  • Decreased Microvilli Length, and Associated Gene Expression Changes, in Patients With Crohn’s Disease

Decreased Microvilli Length, and Associated Gene Expression Changes, in Patients With Crohn’s Disease

In an analysis of intestinal tissues from patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), researchers identified specific changes in gene expression patterns that associate with histologic changes, such as differences in microvilli length. Decreased microvilli length, via decreased expression of the microvilli gene set, might contribute to epithelial malfunction and the chronic

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  • How Many Cases of Drug-Induced Liver Injury Are Caused by Herbal and Dietary Supplements?

How Many Cases of Drug-Induced Liver Injury Are Caused by Herbal and Dietary Supplements?

Herbal and dietary supplement-induced liver injury is more severe than other types of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), and re-exposure is more likely, researchers report in the September issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Increasing awareness of the hepatoxic effects of herbal and dietary supplements could help physicians make earlier diagnoses

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  • How Does Cigarette Smoke Promote Pancreatic Tumor Development?

How Does Cigarette Smoke Promote Pancreatic Tumor Development?

Exposure to cigarette smoke activates stem cell features in pancreatic cells, via nicotinic cholinergic receptor signaling to transcription factors that activate expression of stem cell genes, researchers report in the September issue of Gastroenterology. Levels of the stem cell transcriptional regulator PAF1 are increased in pancreatic tumors from humans and

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  • Dyspepsia and Hyperamylasemia Due to Plastic Spork Ingestion

Dyspepsia and Hyperamylasemia Due to Plastic Spork Ingestion

Researchers report a case of abdominal pain and hyperamylasemia due a duodenal foreign body in the September issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Lotje Korteweg et al describe the case of a 38-year old man referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A gastroduodenoscopy had been performed for chronic dyspepsia and showed

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