New Treatment for IBS

LX1031, a drug that inhibits serotonin production, relieves symptoms and increases stool consistency in patients with nonconstipating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), according to a study by Philip Brown et al. in the August issue of Gastroenterology. Serotonin (also called 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that controls mood and cognition, as

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Certolizumab and Remission in Some Patients With Crohn’s Disease

The drug certolizumab pegol induces remission in patients with Crohn’s disease who have high baseline levels of inflammation, according to William Sandborn et al. in the August issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Patients with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease that do not respond conventional therapy are often treated with

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Why Do Only Some Gastric Tumors Respond to Therapy?

Tumors from patients with gastric cancer can be divided into subgroups, based on their gene expression pattern. This information can be used to select the best treatment, according to Patrick Tan and colleagues in the August issue of Gastroenterology. Gastric tumors have large, inter-individual differences in aggressiveness, histopathology features, and

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Fluid Resuscitation for Acute Pancreatitis—When and With What?

Patients that are given fluid resuscitation within 24 hours of developing acute pancreatitis are less likely to experience systemic inflammatory response (SIR) or organ failure, according to a study by Matthew G. Warndorf et al. in the August issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process

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An Immune Culprit in IBD?

Patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis have reduced levels of an important regulator of the immune response—the receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)—according to a study by Jonathan Goldstein et al. in the July issue of Gastroenterology. The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease arise from

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Constipation Relief

The drug bisacodyl is effective against chronic constipation and improves patients’ quality of life, according to a large study published by Michael Kamm et al. in the July issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Constipation affects 12% to 19% of Americans; its prevalence increases with age and it affects women

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Dangerous Diabetes Drugs?

The drugs sitagliptin and exenatide, used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes, increase risk for pancreatitis and cancer, according to a study from Michael Elashoff and colleagues published in the July issue of Gastroenterology. The authors examined the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration’s database of reported adverse

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Causes of Chronic Nausea and Vomiting

Chronic nausea and vomiting in patients with normal gastric emptying is a significant medical problem that is indistinguishable from gastroparesis and might be a separate clinical entity, according to Pankaj Pasricha in the July issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Chronic nausea and vomiting in patients that do not have

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Treatment for Gallstones?

Cholesterol gallstone disease might be treated with activators of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) such as St. John’s Wort, according to a study in the June issue of Gastroenterology. Cholesterol gallstone disease is caused by a biochemical imbalance of lipids and bile salts in the gallbladder bile. Jinhan He et

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Does Mucosal Healing Determine Which Patients Will Recover From Ulcerative Colitis?

Lack of mucosal healing, based on endoscopic analysis, identifies patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who are not likely to respond to corticosteroid therapy, according to Sandro Ardizzone et al. in the June issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. In a prospective study, Ardizzone et al. followed 157 patients with moderate

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