GI Tract

Could Some Cases of IBS Actually Be Food Hypersensitivity?

Twenty-five percent of patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are actually hypersensitive to specific foods, according to a study in the November issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. IBS and food hypersensitivity reactions have many overlapping symptoms, including abdominal pain and discomfort, bloating, and altered bowel habits, making it

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How Do Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase Intestinal Damage from NSAIDS?

Taking a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to reduce stomach damage from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can damage the intestine by disrupting the microbiota, according to a study by John Wallace et al. in the October issue of Gastroenterology. Patients who take NSAIDs are frequently given PPIs to reduce gastric acid

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What is the Best Treatment for Microscopic Colitis?

The corticosteroid budesonide is the most effective treatment for patients with microscopic colitis (MC), according to a meta-analysis in the October issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. However, once patients stop taking this drug, the rate of symptom relapse is high. MC is an inflammatory disorder of the colon that

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Stem Cells Account for Different Fates of Adenomatous and Hyperplastic Polyps

Adenomatous polyps expand the pool of colon stem cells to become malignant, whereas hyperplastic polyps (HPPs) do not, and therefore remain benign, according to a study published in the September issue of Gastroenterology. Many colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps, which contain mutations that inactivate the tumor suppressor APC. These

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An Aspirin a Day Won’t Kill You, But it Might Cause GI Bleeding

Taking an aspirin a day reduces the risk for death, but increases odds of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, according to a large meta-analysis published in the September issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Daily low doses of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, also known as aspirin, 75 to 325 mg per day) are

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Bariatric Surgery – More Than Expected

Bariatric surgery doesn’t only cause dramatic weight loss—the procedure itself has profound metabolic effects, according to studies published in the September issue of Gastroenterology. Two types of bariatric surgery are most effective therapies for sustained weight loss in obese patients. In Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), a gastric pouch drains into

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New Treatment for IBS

LX1031, a drug that inhibits serotonin production, relieves symptoms and increases stool consistency in patients with nonconstipating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), according to a study by Philip Brown et al. in the August issue of Gastroenterology. Serotonin (also called 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that controls mood and cognition, as

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Certolizumab and Remission in Some Patients With Crohn’s Disease

The drug certolizumab pegol induces remission in patients with Crohn’s disease who have high baseline levels of inflammation, according to William Sandborn et al. in the August issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Patients with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease that do not respond conventional therapy are often treated with

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Why Do Only Some Gastric Tumors Respond to Therapy?

Tumors from patients with gastric cancer can be divided into subgroups, based on their gene expression pattern. This information can be used to select the best treatment, according to Patrick Tan and colleagues in the August issue of Gastroenterology. Gastric tumors have large, inter-individual differences in aggressiveness, histopathology features, and

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An Immune Culprit in IBD?

Patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis have reduced levels of an important regulator of the immune response—the receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)—according to a study by Jonathan Goldstein et al. in the July issue of Gastroenterology. The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease arise from

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