Technology
  • Restoring Immune Regulation to Patients With Alcoholic Hepatitis

Restoring Immune Regulation to Patients With Alcoholic Hepatitis

Patients with alcoholic hepatitis have dysfunctional T-cell and natural killer cell responses that lead to overwhelming bacterial infections. Researchers report in the March issue of Gastroenterology that the immune impairment is mediated by endotoxin-induced over-expression of proteins called programmed cell death 1 (PD1) and mucin domain–containing protein 3 (TIM3), which suppress the immune

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In Vitro Stomach?

Researchers have developed an advanced, long-term, 3-dimensional organoid culture system for primary, untransformed human gastric epithelium. The system, described in the January issue of Gastroenterology, provides evidence for the presence of stem cells in adult human gastric tissue and can be used to study changes that occur in the gastric epithelium during

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  • Is There a Treatment for Rumination Syndrome?

Is There a Treatment for Rumination Syndrome?

Rumination is an unperceived somatic response to food ingestion that disrupts abdominal accommodation, researchers report in the January issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. They go on to show that it can be corrected by biofeedback-guided control of abdomino-thoracic muscular activity. Rumination syndrome is characterized by effortless recurrent regurgitation of

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  • Probiotics for Cirrhosis?

Probiotics for Cirrhosis?

A probiotic solution significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for hepatic encephalopathy and markers of liver disease severity in patients with cirrhosis, researchers report in the December issue of Gastroenterology. Hepatic encephalopathy develops in 50%–70% of patients with cirrhosis; fewer than 50% of these patients survive for 1 year. Rifaximin and

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  • Microbes go With the Flow (of Oxygen) in the Intestine

Microbes go With the Flow (of Oxygen) in the Intestine

The intestine contains a radial gradient of microbes that changes with the distribution of oxygen and nutrients, researchers report in the November issue of Gastroenterology. Further study of this distribution could provide information about activities of the microbiota in the healthy and inflamed intestine. The bacteria of the intestinal live in

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Video: Use of Full Thickness Resection Device to Remove a Diverticular Polyp

Researchers present a video demonstrating how a full-thickness resection device allows for safe, single-step endoscopic removal and closure of a diverticular adenoma, without leakage of bowel content into the peritoneal cavity. This system, described in the November issue of Gastroenterology, allows for secure resection of high-risk lesions and might even be performed in an outpatient setting.

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  • Using High-resolution Microendoscopy to Detect Gastrointestinal Neoplasia

Using High-resolution Microendoscopy to Detect Gastrointestinal Neoplasia

The high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) allows for real-time imaging of the esophageal and gastric epithelium with subcellular resolution. In an Advances in Translational Science article in the November issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Justin S. Louie et al discuss the performance of this portable, low cost, optical biopsy technology in screening and surveillance of gastrointestinal

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Bone Tumors, Abdominal Pain, and Aspirin

Physicians report an unusual case of a man with abdominal pain that responded to aspirin therapy, in the October issue of Gastroenterology. It turns out that the pain was caused by a prostaglandin-producing benign bone tumor. Harpal S. Dhaliwal et al. describe examination of a 33-year-old man with an 18-month history

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  • Video: Which Patients with Crohn’s Disease Need a CT Scan?

Video: Which Patients with Crohn’s Disease Need a CT Scan?

Researchers have developed a system to identify patients with Crohn’s disease who do not require computed tomography (CT) evaluation, described by Shail M. Govani et al  in the October issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. The system uses laboratory test results to avoid CT analysis, and thereby unnecessary exposure to radiation and increased cancer risk. People who come to the emergency department with

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  • How is Notch Activated in Intestinal Stem Cells?

How is Notch Activated in Intestinal Stem Cells?

The enzyme ADAM10 serves as a cellular scissors that clips and activates Notch in the intestine, required for subsequent cell lineage specification and intestinal stem cell survival, researchers report in the October issue of Gastroenterology. These Notch-activated stem cells appear to have a competitive advantage for replenishing the stem cell

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