Gastrointestinal Bleeding Caused by Gastric Tuberculosis

Researchers describe a case of gastric tuberculosis that led to GI bleeding in the June issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Vishal Sharma et al report that a 30-year-old man who was a resident of North India presented to emergency services with 2 episodes of painless hematemesis. He did not have a history of

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  • What is the Active Ingredient in FMT for CDI?

What is the Active Ingredient in FMT for CDI?

Sterile fecal filtrates—containing bacterial debris, proteins, antimicrobial compounds, metabolic products, and microbial DNA, rather than intact microorganisms—appear to be effective for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), researchers report in the March issue of Gastroenterology. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy of recurrent CDI—a single treatment resolves

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  • Do Relatives of Patients With IBD Also Have Intestinal Dysbiosis?

Do Relatives of Patients With IBD Also Have Intestinal Dysbiosis?

The intestinal microbiota of many healthy, first-degree relatives of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is dysbiotic, signifying a pre-disease state, low-level inflammation, and susceptibility to IBD, researchers report in the November issue of Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Changes in the intestinal microbiome are involved in the pathogenesis

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  • How Does Inflammation Lead to Anemia?

How Does Inflammation Lead to Anemia?

Researchers report a mechanism by which inflammation contributes to development of anemia in the November issue of Gastroenterology. The process involves increased liver expression of a microRNA that reduces production of erythropoietin in kidney. Strategies to block this miRNA might help prevent anemia in patients with chronic inflammation. Anemia is associated

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  • Is Dietary Fiber OK for Patients With Crohn’s Disease or Ulcerative Colitis?

Is Dietary Fiber OK for Patients With Crohn’s Disease or Ulcerative Colitis?

Intake of dietary fiber reduces risk of disease flares in patients with Crohn’s disease, but not ulcerative colitis, researchers report in the August issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Recommendations to limit dietary fiber should therefore be re-evaluated. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have been associated with an abnormal mucosal immune response to

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  • Can Microbial Dysbiosis Cause Colonic Inflammation?

Can Microbial Dysbiosis Cause Colonic Inflammation?

Dysbiosis contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) by altering colonic expression of genes that regulate inflammation and the immune response, researchers report in the July issue of Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. An altered intestinal microbiota composition has been associated with IBD. However, it is not

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  • Genetic Variants Associated with IBD Alter Immune Regulatory Signals from Beneficial Microbes

Genetic Variants Associated with IBD Alter Immune Regulatory Signals from Beneficial Microbes

Polymorphisms in susceptibility genes appear to promote development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) by altering the abilities of immune cells to sense protective signals from the microbiome, researchers report. These findings help fill the missing link between genetic risk variants for IBD and dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome. More than

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  • Gut Microbes Affect Extent of Brain Injury After Stroke

Gut Microbes Affect Extent of Brain Injury After Stroke

Altering the intestinal microbiota of mice can reduce the extent of brain damage after a stroke, researchers found. These findings provide a previously unrecognized link between the intestine and the brain. The composition of the intestinal microbiome affects development of the immune system and metabolic processes, and is altered in

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  • An Ex-vivo Model for Electrolyte Transport Along the Small Intestine

An Ex-vivo Model for Electrolyte Transport Along the Small Intestine

Undifferentiated or crypt-like, and differentiated or villus-like, human intestinal enteroids represent distinct points along the crypt–villus axis and can be used to characterize electrolyte transport processes along the small intestine, researchers report in the March issue of Gastroenterology. Studies of their duodenal enteroid model showed that electrogenic Na+/HCO3– cotransporter 1 in the

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  • Intestinal Microbiota Protect Children From Malnutrition

Intestinal Microbiota Protect Children From Malnutrition

Three new studies show that intestinal bacteria protect children from malnutrition and allow them to benefit from breast milk. Malnutrition, the world’s leading cause of death before age 5, is a persistent challenge that is not always remedied by improvements in nutrition. This is because the community of gut microbes regulate growth,

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