• Effects of Diet, Intestinal Inflammation, and the Microbiome on Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Effects of Diet, Intestinal Inflammation, and the Microbiome on Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Diets that promote intestinal inflammation can increase risk of colorectal carcinomas associated with specific bacteria in the microbiome, researchers report in the October issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Diet-induced intestinal inflammation alters the gut microbiome to contribute to colorectal cancer risk, which might be reduced with dietary changes. Chronic inflammation

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  • Does Acute Pancreatitis Increase Risk of Pancreatic Cancer?

Does Acute Pancreatitis Increase Risk of Pancreatic Cancer?

Patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis have a 2-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared with the general population, researchers report in the May issue of Gastroenterology. Acute pancreatitis is a sudden-onset inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Although acute pancreatitis promotes development of pancreatic cancer in mouse models, there have been conflicting findings from epidemiology

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  • Model: Microfabricated Crypt Scaffolds for Studying Human Colon Stem Cells

Model: Microfabricated Crypt Scaffolds for Studying Human Colon Stem Cells

Researchers created an in vitro human colon crypt array that provides an accurate representation of human intestinal crypts, reported in the February issue of Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. This system re-creates an intestinal epithelium with a high density of polarized crypts that respond in a physiologic manner to growth factors, metabolites, or

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  • Intestinal Microbes as Carcinogens

Intestinal Microbes as Carcinogens

Fecal microbiota from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have carcinogenic properties, researchers report in the December issue of Gastroenterology. Feeding mice stool from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) increased numbers of polyps, levels of intestinal dysplasia and proliferation, and markers of inflammation in colon, compared with stool from individuals without CRC, the scientists found.

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  • What Causes Wheat Sensitivity in People Without Celiac Disease?

What Causes Wheat Sensitivity in People Without Celiac Disease?

Gluten-containing cereals have high concentrations of amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), which activate innate immunity via the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), researchers report in the April issue of Gastroenterology. These ATIs are resistant to proteases and heat, and increase intestinal inflammation by activating intestinal and mesenteric lymph node myeloid cells. Wheat is

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  • Can we Identify People With IBD Before Symptoms Develop?

Can we Identify People With IBD Before Symptoms Develop?

People have high plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL6) and c-reactive protein years before they are diagnosed with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), researchers report in the June issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. These markers of systemic inflammation could be features of early-stage disease used to identify patients at risk. Crohn’s

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  • Can we Promote Liver Regeneration in Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis?

Can we Promote Liver Regeneration in Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis?

The combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and a long-acting form of erythropoietin increases survival of patients with decompensated cirrhosis, researchers report in the June issue of Gastroenterology. The growth factor combination also improved liver function and reduced risk for septic shock within 1 y of treatment. Decompensation in patients

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  • What do Enteric Glial Cells Do?

What do Enteric Glial Cells Do?

Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are important regulators of intestinal homeostasis—disruption of their activities can lead to digestive and extradigestive diseases. Michael Neunlist et al describe the neuroprotective effects of EGCs, how they regulate expression of neuromediators, and their roles as neuronal and glial progenitors in the enteric nervous system in a review article in the

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  • Probiotics for Cirrhosis?

Probiotics for Cirrhosis?

A probiotic solution significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for hepatic encephalopathy and markers of liver disease severity in patients with cirrhosis, researchers report in the December issue of Gastroenterology. Hepatic encephalopathy develops in 50%–70% of patients with cirrhosis; fewer than 50% of these patients survive for 1 year. Rifaximin and

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  • What are the Roles for Chemokines in Liver Disease?

What are the Roles for Chemokines in Liver Disease?

Sustained hepatic inflammation contributes to the progression of chronic liver diseases such as hepatitis C and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In the September issue of Gastroenterology, Fabio Marra and Frank Tacke review the roles of chemokines in liver inflammation and disease progression. In the liver, chemokines regulate the migration and activities of hepatocytes, Kupffer

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