• Should We Screen for HCC?

Should We Screen for HCC?

Screening patients with cirrhosis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by abdominal ultrasonography (USS) and/or measurement of serum level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is not associated with reduced mortality from this cancer, reseachers report from a matched case–control study in the October issue of Gastroenterology. Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk (1%–8%

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  • Decreased Microvilli Length, and Associated Gene Expression Changes, in Patients With Crohn’s Disease

Decreased Microvilli Length, and Associated Gene Expression Changes, in Patients With Crohn’s Disease

In an analysis of intestinal tissues from patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), researchers identified specific changes in gene expression patterns that associate with histologic changes, such as differences in microvilli length. Decreased microvilli length, via decreased expression of the microvilli gene set, might contribute to epithelial malfunction and the chronic

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  • A Genetic Cause for Multiple Adenomas and Diabetes in a Young Patient

A Genetic Cause for Multiple Adenomas and Diabetes in a Young Patient

Researchers report a case of a patient with multiple adenomas and a family history of young-onset diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma. They found these to be caused by a mutation in the HNF1 homeobox A gene (HNF1A), which caused maturity onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3). Tom J. Harryvan et al evaluated a

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  • Review: Pathogenesis and Prevention of Gastric Cancer

Review: Pathogenesis and Prevention of Gastric Cancer

New diagnostic protocols, effective medical treatments, and recently developed conservative ablative procedures could make gastric cancer a preventable malignancy, says a review article in the December issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Gastric cancer is 1 of the 5 most common causes of cancer death, and only 30% of patients survive 5

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  • A Forward Genetic Screen Identifies Suppressors of Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis

A Forward Genetic Screen Identifies Suppressors of Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis

Using 2 powerful high-throughput in vivo screening tools, researchers identified and validated 27 genes as suppressors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), reported in the August issue of Gastroenterology. Their findings support the role of Ras signaling in development of HCC and provide new therapeutic targets. Sorafenib is the only treatment for patients

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  • Researchers Identify Individuals Resilient to Severe Mendelian Childhood Diseases

Researchers Identify Individuals Resilient to Severe Mendelian Childhood Diseases

A genomic analysis of more than half a million people identified 13 individuals who appear to remain healthy despite carrying genetic mutations linked to severe childhood diseases. Although the biological reasons for this resilience are not yet understood, the study provides a first step toward identification of genetic variants that

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  • Does a PNPLA3 Polymorphism Promote Fibrosis Progression in Patients with Hepatitis C?

Does a PNPLA3 Polymorphism Promote Fibrosis Progression in Patients with Hepatitis C?

A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) is associated with baseline level of fibrosis and its progression, but not development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, researchers report in the February issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Most

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  • Special Issue: Genetics, Genetic Testing, and Biomarkers of Digestive Diseases

Special Issue: Genetics, Genetic Testing, and Biomarkers of Digestive Diseases

A special issue of Gastroenterology features 14 articles discussing the genetic factors that contribute to a range of gastrointestinal (GI),  hepatobiliary, and pancreatic diseases, and how this information can be used in diagnosis and treatment of patients. An introduction to the special issue explains the value of associating diseases with specific genetic variants, which can help

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  • What Gene Mutations Cause Familial Colorectal Cancers?

What Gene Mutations Cause Familial Colorectal Cancers?

Mutations in the DNA repair gene, FAN1, cause some inherited forms of colorectal cancer (CRC), researchers report in the September issue of Gastroenterology. Identification of another gene associated with this hereditary cancer will facilitate management of patients with family histories of cancer. Germline mutations in EPCAM, APC, MUTYH, POLE, POLD1, GREM1,

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  • Researchers Determine how FTO Variant Increases Obesity Risk

Researchers Determine how FTO Variant Increases Obesity Risk

Variants in the FTO gene have been associated with obesity and metabolic disease, but little is known about the function of its product. Researchers now show how this gene regulates body weight. FTO encodes a nuclear protein of the AlkB related non-heme iron and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase superfamily. In the NIH

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