• What Causes Wheat Sensitivity in People Without Celiac Disease?

What Causes Wheat Sensitivity in People Without Celiac Disease?

Gluten-containing cereals have high concentrations of amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), which activate innate immunity via the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), researchers report in the April issue of Gastroenterology. These ATIs are resistant to proteases and heat, and increase intestinal inflammation by activating intestinal and mesenteric lymph node myeloid cells. Wheat is

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  • What are the Different Types of Liver Cancer, and How do They Develop?

What are the Different Types of Liver Cancer, and How do They Develop?

A review article in the March issue of Gastroenterology discusses different hypotheses about the cells responsible for liver tumorigenesis. The article also reviews the different classes of liver tumors, based on the molecular features, and how these affect patient prognosis. Daniela Sia et al describe the distinct molecular and clinical features of hepatocellular

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  • Hepatosplenic Lesions from Cat Scratch Disease

Hepatosplenic Lesions from Cat Scratch Disease

Researchers describe an unusual case of cat scratch disease, with hepatosplenic involvement, in the January 2017 issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Sean K. Verma et al report on a 28-year-old man with no past medical history presented with fevers, chills, abdominal pain, night sweats, 3 weeks of weight loss,

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  • How Does Cigarette Smoking Lead to Chronic Pancreatitis?

How Does Cigarette Smoking Lead to Chronic Pancreatitis?

Aryl hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke activate an immune response that promotes pancreatic fibrosis and contributes to pancreatitis, researchers report in the December issue of Gastroenterology. The authors show that constituents of tobacco smoke activate signaling via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) to induce T-cell production of interleukin 22 (IL22), activating

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  • How Does Inflammation Lead to Anemia?

How Does Inflammation Lead to Anemia?

Researchers report a mechanism by which inflammation contributes to development of anemia in the November issue of Gastroenterology. The process involves increased liver expression of a microRNA that reduces production of erythropoietin in kidney. Strategies to block this miRNA might help prevent anemia in patients with chronic inflammation. Anemia is associated

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  • How Could the Intestinal Microbiota Contribute to Celiac Disease?

How Could the Intestinal Microbiota Contribute to Celiac Disease?

Bacteria in the small intestine metabolize gluten differently, to increase or decrease its immunogenicity, researchers report in the October issue of Gastroenterology. This interaction between microbes and gluten could help determine the risk for autoimmune enteropathy in genetically susceptible individuals and underlie the reported association between dysbiosis and celiac disease.

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Peanut Consumption in Infancy not Only Prevents Allergy but Effects Persist After Avoidance

The benefits of regularly consuming peanut-containing foods early in life to prevent the development of peanut allergy persist even when subjects stopped peanut consumption for 1 year, a clinical study found. Early introduction of peanuts to infants at high risk for allergy was previously shown to prevent peanut allergy. In a

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  • Is Combination Therapy Most Effective for HBV Infection?

Is Combination Therapy Most Effective for HBV Infection?

A significantly greater proportion of patients receiving a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and pegylated interferon-α (peginterferon) for 48 weeks lost hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), a marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA transcriptional activity, compared to patients given the standard care (peginterferon or TDF alone), researchers report

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  • Gut Microbiome Determines Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy

Gut Microbiome Determines Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy

Specific groups of intestinal microbes can boost the anti-tumor effects of cancer immunotherapies in mice, researchers show. Cancer immunotherapies that block immune inhibitory pathways have been tested in patients with several tumor types, but responses have varied. A study published in Science, while not the first to link gut microbes

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  • Restoring Immune Regulation to Patients With Alcoholic Hepatitis

Restoring Immune Regulation to Patients With Alcoholic Hepatitis

Patients with alcoholic hepatitis have dysfunctional T-cell and natural killer cell responses that lead to overwhelming bacterial infections. Researchers report in the March issue of Gastroenterology that the immune impairment is mediated by endotoxin-induced over-expression of proteins called programmed cell death 1 (PD1) and mucin domain–containing protein 3 (TIM3), which suppress the immune

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