• Gut Microbiome Determines Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy

Gut Microbiome Determines Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy

Specific groups of intestinal microbes can boost the anti-tumor effects of cancer immunotherapies in mice, researchers show. Cancer immunotherapies that block immune inhibitory pathways have been tested in patients with several tumor types, but responses have varied. A study published in Science, while not the first to link gut microbes

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  • Restoring Immune Regulation to Patients With Alcoholic Hepatitis

Restoring Immune Regulation to Patients With Alcoholic Hepatitis

Patients with alcoholic hepatitis have dysfunctional T-cell and natural killer cell responses that lead to overwhelming bacterial infections. Researchers report in the March issue of Gastroenterology that the immune impairment is mediated by endotoxin-induced over-expression of proteins called programmed cell death 1 (PD1) and mucin domain–containing protein 3 (TIM3), which suppress the immune

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  • What are the Roles for Chemokines in Liver Disease?

What are the Roles for Chemokines in Liver Disease?

Sustained hepatic inflammation contributes to the progression of chronic liver diseases such as hepatitis C and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In the September issue of Gastroenterology, Fabio Marra and Frank Tacke review the roles of chemokines in liver inflammation and disease progression. In the liver, chemokines regulate the migration and activities of hepatocytes, Kupffer

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  • Can Dietary Changes Reduce Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults?

Can Dietary Changes Reduce Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults?

Dietary elimination is a successful treatment approach for adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), researchers report in the August issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. EoE is characterized by inflammation or swelling of the esophagus associated with infiltration of eosinophils. Aeroallergens and food allergens might be involved in pathogenesis. Dietary elimination therapy has

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How Many People Have Eosinophilic Esophagitis?

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), which was barely recognized 20 years ago, affects at least 150,000 people in the United States, with three-quarters being adults, report Evan Dellon et al. in the April issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. EoE, also known as allergic esophagitis, is an allergic inflammatory disease characterized by

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  • What is the Best Way to Care for Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis?

What is the Best Way to Care for Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis?

Although alcohol-related liver disease is the 8th most common cause of mortality in the US and the 2nd leading cause of mortality among all gastrointestinal diseases, there are few therapeutic options for patients or resources to support identification of new therapies. However, treatment approaches are being developed; a review in

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How Does PSC Lead to IBD?

Many patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) also have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which becomes more severe after liver transplantation, researchers report in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. These patients might require special immunosuppressive regimens. PSC is a chronic, cholestatic liver disease that eventually leads to cirrhosis

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What are the Effects of Albumin in Patients With SBP?

Albumin infusion prevents renal impairment and reduces mortality among patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), according to a meta-analysis published in the February issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. SBP is a common bacterial infection among cirrhotic patients and a dangerous complication of ascites. Mortality can reach 30% despite antibiotic

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Eosinophilic Esophagitis? Change Your Diet.

Eliminating specific foods from your diet can reduce symptoms of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), according to the June issue of Gastroenterology. EoE is an immune disorder in which eosinophils cause inflammation of the esophagus, leading to difficulty swallowing and food impactions. Many adults cope for years with swallowing difficulties and do

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What Causes Pancreatitis?

Trypsinogen might not be the sole culprit in acute pancreatitis, contradicting a century-old model of this disease; a new model is published in the December issue of Gastroenterology. Trypsinogen is a pancreatic protein that is converted in acinar cells to the enzyme trypsin—a protease that is important for digestion and

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