What Happens to Infants Whose Mothers Took Anti-TNF Agents During Pregnancy?

Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents can be detected in infants born to mothers with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) who took the drugs during pregnancy, researchers report in the July issue of Gastroenterology. Infliximab is cleared more slowly than adalimumab from infants. However, measureable levels in infants do not seem to be

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  • How Much Do Antibiotics Increase Risk of Obesity in Young Children?

How Much Do Antibiotics Increase Risk of Obesity in Young Children?

Administration of 3 or more courses of antibiotics to children younger than 2 years greatly increases their risk for early childhood obesity, researchers report in the July issue of Gastroenterology. Antibiotics have been used to promote weight gain in the agricultural industry for decades. This effect is believed to be

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  • How Might PPIs Promote C difficile infection?

How Might PPIs Promote C difficile infection?

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) do not have a large effect on microbial diversity of the colon, but do affect specific taxa, including Streptococcaceae and Enterococcaceae, which mediate resistance to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), researchers report in the October issue of Gastroenterology. This finding might provide a mechanism by which these drugs increase risk for CDI.

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  • A Non-Antibiotic Against Clostridium difficile Infection

A Non-Antibiotic Against Clostridium difficile Infection

A non-antibiotic drug reduces the effects Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by disabling the bacteria’s toxins, a study showed in mice. The orally administered agent, ebselen, has been in clinical trials for an unrelated condition and could offer a new approach for combating multidrug-resistant CDI. C difficile infection causes life-threatening diarrhea and

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  • What are the Effects of Antiviral Therapy in Patients With IBD and CMV Infection?

What are the Effects of Antiviral Therapy in Patients With IBD and CMV Infection?

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection complicates inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but anti-viral therapy reduces the need for bowel surgery, researchers report in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. The benefits of anti-viral treatment are greatest for patients with high-grade disease, they show. CMV infection is more common in patients with

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  • How Many Patients are Screened for HBV Infection Before Chemotherapy?

How Many Patients are Screened for HBV Infection Before Chemotherapy?

Only a small percentage of patients receiving chemotherapy are screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, although the proportion of patients screened has increased slightly over the past decade, researchers report in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Strategies are needed to ensure that patients receiving chemotherapy are

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Cheap Allergy Drug Prevents HCV Infection of Hepatocytes

An over-the-counter allergy drug may be repurposed to treat patients with hepatitis C, researchers show. Chlorcyclizine, which costs about $0.50 a tablet, could offer a low-cost alternative or addition to treatment for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Direct-acting antiviral therapies can cure hepatitis C, but their high cost—which

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  • Restoring Immune Regulation to Patients With Alcoholic Hepatitis

Restoring Immune Regulation to Patients With Alcoholic Hepatitis

Patients with alcoholic hepatitis have dysfunctional T-cell and natural killer cell responses that lead to overwhelming bacterial infections. Researchers report in the March issue of Gastroenterology that the immune impairment is mediated by endotoxin-induced over-expression of proteins called programmed cell death 1 (PD1) and mucin domain–containing protein 3 (TIM3), which suppress the immune

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Deadly Bacteria Transmitted by Duodenoscopes

Duodenoscopes and endoscopes used in retrograde cholangiopancreatography are causing infections with carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and possibly other bacteria throughout the US. While medical societies and journals scramble to increase awareness of infection risks, medical centers are already taking precautions to avoid further infections. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA),

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  • Liver Metastases, or Syphilis?

Liver Metastases, or Syphilis?

Researchers report initially mistaking late-stage syphilis for liver metastases in the November issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Irphan Gaslightwala et al describe a 59-year-old man with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia; 6 months of persistent fevers, chills, and night sweats; and loss of 50 pounds. A positron emission tomography–computed tomography

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