• Could the Microbiota Link Metabolic Syndrome With Inflammation?

Could the Microbiota Link Metabolic Syndrome With Inflammation?

Bacterial encroachment—shrinking of the bug-free zone adjacent to the colonic epithelium—is a feature of metabolic syndrome, researchers report in the September issue of Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. The findings could explain the relationship between diabetes and inflammation. Mucoid structures that coat the epithelium keep the intestinal microbiota at

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  • Does Asthma Increase Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

Does Asthma Increase Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

A population-based case–control study published in the September issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology associates asthma with later development of Crohn’s disease (CD) and with ulcerative colitis (UC). Although the etiology of asthma and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are not well understood, they both involve complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors and the

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  • What Causes Wheat Sensitivity in People Without Celiac Disease?

What Causes Wheat Sensitivity in People Without Celiac Disease?

Gluten-containing cereals have high concentrations of amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), which activate innate immunity via the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), researchers report in the April issue of Gastroenterology. These ATIs are resistant to proteases and heat, and increase intestinal inflammation by activating intestinal and mesenteric lymph node myeloid cells. Wheat is

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  • What are the Different Types of Liver Cancer, and How do They Develop?

What are the Different Types of Liver Cancer, and How do They Develop?

A review article in the March issue of Gastroenterology discusses different hypotheses about the cells responsible for liver tumorigenesis. The article also reviews the different classes of liver tumors, based on the molecular features, and how these affect patient prognosis. Daniela Sia et al describe the distinct molecular and clinical features of hepatocellular

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  • Can Vitamin D Affect Risk of Ulcerative Colitis Relapse?

Can Vitamin D Affect Risk of Ulcerative Colitis Relapse?

Serum levels of vitamin D of 35 ng/mL or less in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in clinical remission are associated with disease relapse, researchers report in the February issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Increasing patients’ levels of vitamin D might reduce their risk for UC relapse. Vitamin D

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  • How Does Cigarette Smoking Lead to Chronic Pancreatitis?

How Does Cigarette Smoking Lead to Chronic Pancreatitis?

Aryl hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke activate an immune response that promotes pancreatic fibrosis and contributes to pancreatitis, researchers report in the December issue of Gastroenterology. The authors show that constituents of tobacco smoke activate signaling via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) to induce T-cell production of interleukin 22 (IL22), activating

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  • Do Relatives of Patients With IBD Also Have Intestinal Dysbiosis?

Do Relatives of Patients With IBD Also Have Intestinal Dysbiosis?

The intestinal microbiota of many healthy, first-degree relatives of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is dysbiotic, signifying a pre-disease state, low-level inflammation, and susceptibility to IBD, researchers report in the November issue of Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Changes in the intestinal microbiome are involved in the pathogenesis

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  • How Does Inflammation Lead to Anemia?

How Does Inflammation Lead to Anemia?

Researchers report a mechanism by which inflammation contributes to development of anemia in the November issue of Gastroenterology. The process involves increased liver expression of a microRNA that reduces production of erythropoietin in kidney. Strategies to block this miRNA might help prevent anemia in patients with chronic inflammation. Anemia is associated

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  • How Could the Intestinal Microbiota Contribute to Celiac Disease?

How Could the Intestinal Microbiota Contribute to Celiac Disease?

Bacteria in the small intestine metabolize gluten differently, to increase or decrease its immunogenicity, researchers report in the October issue of Gastroenterology. This interaction between microbes and gluten could help determine the risk for autoimmune enteropathy in genetically susceptible individuals and underlie the reported association between dysbiosis and celiac disease.

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  • Can Disruption of the Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Contribute to Steatohepatitis?

Can Disruption of the Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Contribute to Steatohepatitis?

Mice with defects in intestinal epithelial permeability develop more severe steatohepatitis when placed on a diet high in saturated fat, fructose, and cholesterol (HFCD) than control mice, and colon tissues from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have similar defects in intestinal epithelial permeability, researchers report in the October

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