• How Does Cigarette Smoking Lead to Chronic Pancreatitis?

How Does Cigarette Smoking Lead to Chronic Pancreatitis?

Aryl hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke activate an immune response that promotes pancreatic fibrosis and contributes to pancreatitis, researchers report in the December issue of Gastroenterology. The authors show that constituents of tobacco smoke activate signaling via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) to induce T-cell production of interleukin 22 (IL22), activating

Read more
  • Can we Identify People With IBD Before Symptoms Develop?

Can we Identify People With IBD Before Symptoms Develop?

People have high plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL6) and c-reactive protein years before they are diagnosed with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), researchers report in the June issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. These markers of systemic inflammation could be features of early-stage disease used to identify patients at risk. Crohn’s

Read more
  • Restoring Immune Regulation to Patients With Alcoholic Hepatitis

Restoring Immune Regulation to Patients With Alcoholic Hepatitis

Patients with alcoholic hepatitis have dysfunctional T-cell and natural killer cell responses that lead to overwhelming bacterial infections. Researchers report in the March issue of Gastroenterology that the immune impairment is mediated by endotoxin-induced over-expression of proteins called programmed cell death 1 (PD1) and mucin domain–containing protein 3 (TIM3), which suppress the immune

Read more
  • Probiotics for Cirrhosis?

Probiotics for Cirrhosis?

A probiotic solution significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for hepatic encephalopathy and markers of liver disease severity in patients with cirrhosis, researchers report in the December issue of Gastroenterology. Hepatic encephalopathy develops in 50%–70% of patients with cirrhosis; fewer than 50% of these patients survive for 1 year. Rifaximin and

Read more