• Do Relatives of Patients With IBD Also Have Intestinal Dysbiosis?

Do Relatives of Patients With IBD Also Have Intestinal Dysbiosis?

The intestinal microbiota of many healthy, first-degree relatives of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is dysbiotic, signifying a pre-disease state, low-level inflammation, and susceptibility to IBD, researchers report in the November issue of Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Changes in the intestinal microbiome are involved in the pathogenesis

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  • How Does Inflammation Lead to Anemia?

How Does Inflammation Lead to Anemia?

Researchers report a mechanism by which inflammation contributes to development of anemia in the November issue of Gastroenterology. The process involves increased liver expression of a microRNA that reduces production of erythropoietin in kidney. Strategies to block this miRNA might help prevent anemia in patients with chronic inflammation. Anemia is associated

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  • How Could the Intestinal Microbiota Contribute to Celiac Disease?

How Could the Intestinal Microbiota Contribute to Celiac Disease?

Bacteria in the small intestine metabolize gluten differently, to increase or decrease its immunogenicity, researchers report in the October issue of Gastroenterology. This interaction between microbes and gluten could help determine the risk for autoimmune enteropathy in genetically susceptible individuals and underlie the reported association between dysbiosis and celiac disease.

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  • Genetic Variants Associated with IBD Alter Immune Regulatory Signals from Beneficial Microbes

Genetic Variants Associated with IBD Alter Immune Regulatory Signals from Beneficial Microbes

Polymorphisms in susceptibility genes appear to promote development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) by altering the abilities of immune cells to sense protective signals from the microbiome, researchers report. These findings help fill the missing link between genetic risk variants for IBD and dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome. More than

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  • What can we do with Gastrointestinal Organoids?

What can we do with Gastrointestinal Organoids?

Researchers review the latest discoveries from studies of tissue-derived and pluripotent stem cell–derived intestinal, gastric, esophageal, liver, and pancreatic organoids in the May issue of Gastroenterology. Studies of organoids have provided valuable information about GI development, tissue homeostasis, and disease and might be used to develop personalized medicines. In vitro organoid cultures are

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  • A Case of Duodenal Ulcers from Strongyloides

A Case of Duodenal Ulcers from Strongyloides

Researchers describe a nearly missed case of Strongyloides infection in the April issue of Gastroenterology, had it not been for analysis of duodenal biopsies. Douglas Grunwald et al describe the case of a 74-year-old Jamaican-born woman with a 3-month history of dyspepsia, nausea, bloating, early satiety, and weight loss of 40 lbs. In

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  • An Ex-vivo Model for Electrolyte Transport Along the Small Intestine

An Ex-vivo Model for Electrolyte Transport Along the Small Intestine

Undifferentiated or crypt-like, and differentiated or villus-like, human intestinal enteroids represent distinct points along the crypt–villus axis and can be used to characterize electrolyte transport processes along the small intestine, researchers report in the March issue of Gastroenterology. Studies of their duodenal enteroid model showed that electrogenic Na+/HCO3– cotransporter 1 in the

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  • What is the Best way to Manage Diverticulitis, and how Many People Have it?

What is the Best way to Manage Diverticulitis, and how Many People Have it?

Not all patients with multiple episodes of diverticulitis should undergo preventative surgery, shows a Markov decision model published in the January 2016 issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Elective surgery after 2 episodes produces fewer quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) than surgery after 3 episodes or conservative or medical treatments, the model found.

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  • Gut Microbiome Determines Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy

Gut Microbiome Determines Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy

Specific groups of intestinal microbes can boost the anti-tumor effects of cancer immunotherapies in mice, researchers show. Cancer immunotherapies that block immune inhibitory pathways have been tested in patients with several tumor types, but responses have varied. A study published in Science, while not the first to link gut microbes

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  • A Non-Antibiotic Against Clostridium difficile Infection

A Non-Antibiotic Against Clostridium difficile Infection

A non-antibiotic drug reduces the effects Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by disabling the bacteria’s toxins, a study showed in mice. The orally administered agent, ebselen, has been in clinical trials for an unrelated condition and could offer a new approach for combating multidrug-resistant CDI. C difficile infection causes life-threatening diarrhea and

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