• Author Q and A Series: Alcohol, the Microbiota, and Liver Disease

Author Q and A Series: Alcohol, the Microbiota, and Liver Disease

Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts the intestinal microbiota to reduce production of saturated long-chain fatty acids and subsequently the proportion and functions of hepatoprotective lactobacilli, Peng Chen et al report in the January issue of Gastroenterology. Dietary approaches to restore levels of saturated fatty acids in the intestine might therefore reduce ethanol-induced liver injury in patients with

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  • Microbes go With the Flow (of Oxygen) in the Intestine

Microbes go With the Flow (of Oxygen) in the Intestine

The intestine contains a radial gradient of microbes that changes with the distribution of oxygen and nutrients, researchers report in the November issue of Gastroenterology. Further study of this distribution could provide information about activities of the microbiota in the healthy and inflamed intestine. The bacteria of the intestinal live in

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  • Celiac Disease Risk Not Affected by Early Diet

Celiac Disease Risk Not Affected by Early Diet

Two studies have shown that neither breastfeeding nor timing the start of gluten-containing foods makes a difference in development of celiac disease in children at risk. The AP reported that the studies, published October 2 in the New England Journal of Medicine, show that there is no early window of

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  • Review: LGR5 and Intestinal Stem Cells

Review: LGR5 and Intestinal Stem Cells

Since the discovery of LGR5 as a marker of intestinal stem cells, we have learned a great deal about the intestinal crypt stem cell niche. In the August issue of Gastroenterology Bon-Kyoung Koo and Hans Clevers review the discovery of crypt base columnar cells as LGR5+ adult stem cells and

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Preventing Hypoglycemia After Gastric Bypass

Many patients who undergo gastric bypass surgery experience hypoglycemia after meals. Researchers report in the March issue of Gastroenterology that they can correct this condition with an agent that blocks the receptor for the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, widely used to treat obesity, alters glucose metabolism in

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Can We Treat Diarrhea by Stimulating Na+ Absorption?

Drugs designed to increase intestinal absorption of sodium might be the best approach for treatment of diarrheal diseases, according to the Advances in Translational Science article in the January issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Acute diarrheal diseases are the second leading cause of of death in children under 5 years

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Are Mitochondria Involved in Ulcerative Colitis?

Changes in mitochondrial DNA that increase levels of ATP in the intestinal mucosa protect mice from colitis, according to the November issue of Gastroenterology. Strategies to increase mitochondrial ATP production by intestinal epithelial cells might therefore be developed to treat patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Characteristics of UC include reduced levels

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How Can the Gut Microbiota Contribute to Liver Disease?

Microbes that reside in colons of obese individuals produce many compounds that could contribute to development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and other complications of obesity, according to a study published in the July issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Microorganisms living in the human intestine (gut microbiota) affect

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How do Intestinal Stem Cells get their Wnt?

Intestinal homeostasis and stem cells are not affected when Paneth cells stop producing Wnt, but Wnt is required to maintain the stem cell niche in intestinal epithelial cultures, according to a mouse study in the December issue of Gastroenterology. These findings indicate that underlying mesenchymal cells provide a secondary physiological

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Could Intestinal Microbes Reduce Insulin Resistance?

The intestinal microbiota can be manipulated to increase insulin sensitivity in people with metabolic syndrome, according to a study published in the October issue of Gastroenterology. The trillions of microorganisms that reside in the human intestine are important regulators of metabolism. Changes in their composition and metabolic function have been

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