How Can the Gut Microbiota Contribute to Liver Disease?

Microbes that reside in colons of obese individuals produce many compounds that could contribute to development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and other complications of obesity, according to a study published in the July issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Microorganisms living in the human intestine (gut microbiota) affect

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How do Intestinal Stem Cells get their Wnt?

Intestinal homeostasis and stem cells are not affected when Paneth cells stop producing Wnt, but Wnt is required to maintain the stem cell niche in intestinal epithelial cultures, according to a mouse study in the December issue of Gastroenterology. These findings indicate that underlying mesenchymal cells provide a secondary physiological

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Could Intestinal Microbes Reduce Insulin Resistance?

The intestinal microbiota can be manipulated to increase insulin sensitivity in people with metabolic syndrome, according to a study published in the October issue of Gastroenterology. The trillions of microorganisms that reside in the human intestine are important regulators of metabolism. Changes in their composition and metabolic function have been

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Which Direction is Best for Enteroscopy?

Antegrade is better than retrograde enteroscopy in diagnosis and treatment of patients with small bowel disease, according to the August issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Single and double balloon-assisted enteroscopy (SBE and DBE), and spiral enteroscopy (which uses a screw-like overtube), are used to evaluate and treat patients with

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Is Medicine or Surgery the Best Treatment for Crohn’s Disease?

For patients with Crohn’s disease and intra-abdominal abscesses, nonsurgical and surgical management strategies result in similar rates of abscess recurrence and complications, according to the April issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Crohn’s disease can progress from inflammation and ulceration to bowel damage that includes formation of abscesses, phlegmon, and

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Fecal Transplantation for C difficile Infection?

Transplantation of feces, via colonoscopy, can cure patients with recurring Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) — even those with the virulent C difficile 027 strain—according to the March issue of Gastroenterology. CDI is a common cause of diarrhea in patients taking antibiotics. Infections have recently become more frequent, severe, refractory to treatment and likely

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Abdominal CT Radiation Risk

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other gastrointestinal disorders can be exposed to high levels of radiation—mostly from abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans—reports the March issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Access to high-quality facilities and technologic advances have increased the use of CT imaging of the GI tract.

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An Immune Culprit in IBD?

Patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis have reduced levels of an important regulator of the immune response—the receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)—according to a study by Jonathan Goldstein et al. in the July issue of Gastroenterology. The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease arise from

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Surviving Childhood Cancer Increases GI Risks

Individuals who received therapy for cancer during childhood have an increased risk of developing GI complications later in life, according to Robert Goldsby et al. in the May issue of Gastroenterology. About 80% of children who receive cancer therapy survive more than 5 years; therapies can be especially toxic to

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