• Gastroduodenal Metastases from Melanoma

Gastroduodenal Metastases from Melanoma

Researchers describe a case of gastroduodenal metastases from cutaneous melanoma, in the May issue of Gastroenterology. Inês Pita et al present the case of a 76-year-old man who arrived at the emergency department with exertional dyspnea and melena for the past 3 weeks, and an episode of presyncope. He denied orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea,

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  • How Does Transforming Growth Factor beta Suppress Colorectal Tumor Development?

How Does Transforming Growth Factor beta Suppress Colorectal Tumor Development?

Researchers review the mechanisms by which loss of transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) proteins contribute to development and progression of colorectal cancer in the January 2017 issue of Gastroenterology. Development and progression of colorectal cancer involve loss of tumor suppressor proteins, including transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family members. In colon

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  • Why do Pancreatic Tumor Cells Love the Liver?

Why do Pancreatic Tumor Cells Love the Liver?

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its precursors secrete high levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) into the circulation, which activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in liver. These cells help create a niche that promotes metastasis of pancreatic tumors to liver, researchers report in the November issue of Gastroenterology.

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  • A Mouse Model for Studying Pancreatic Tumor Resection and Adjuvant Therapy

A Mouse Model for Studying Pancreatic Tumor Resection and Adjuvant Therapy

Researchers have developed mice that develop focal, resectable pancreatic tumors closely resembling human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) that can be used to test adjuvant therapies, according to new research in the August issue of Gastroenterology. The authors show that administration of gemcitabine after resection of the tumors activates natural killer (NK) cell-mediated

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  • Finding Circulating Tumor Cells in Patients With Pancreaticobiliary Cancers

Finding Circulating Tumor Cells in Patients With Pancreaticobiliary Cancers

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be isolated from portal venous blood collected during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) of patients with pancreaticobiliary cancers, researchers report in the December issue of Gastroenterology. CTCs isolated from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer can be analyzed to predict patient survival. However, blood samples from

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  • How do Differentiated Tumor Cells Support Cancer Stem Cells?

How do Differentiated Tumor Cells Support Cancer Stem Cells?

Differentiated colorectal cells produce stem cell factor (SCF) to activate KIT signaling in tumor-initiating cells, researchers report in the September issue of Gastroenterology. This pathway maintains the stem-like features of these tumor cells, predominantly under conditions of hypoxia. Colorectal tumors are organized hierarchically and their growth is mediated by an

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  • Cancer Cells in Circulation

Cancer Cells in Circulation

Pancreatic cancer cells can be detected in patients’ circulation before tumors are discovered, researchers report in the March issue of Gastroenterology. Cancer cells have long been believed to acquire metastatic potential after large primary tumors are established. However, many patients undergoing pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis are found to have disseminated pancreatic

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Could Bone Marrow Cells Contribute to Stomach Cancer?

H pylori recruit bone marrow-derived cells to the gastric mucosa that contribute to tumor development, according to the February issue of Gastroenterology. H pylori infection promotes gastric carcinogenesis through many mechanisms, such as causing inflammation and producing virulence factors that alter gastric cell activity. Over time, these lead to metaplasia, dysplasia,

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Why Do Only Some Gastric Tumors Respond to Therapy?

Tumors from patients with gastric cancer can be divided into subgroups, based on their gene expression pattern. This information can be used to select the best treatment, according to Patrick Tan and colleagues in the August issue of Gastroenterology. Gastric tumors have large, inter-individual differences in aggressiveness, histopathology features, and

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Tracking Pancreatic Cancer Cells

Tumors spread to other parts of the body when cancer cells can escape into the bloodstream, although it is not exactly clear how they enter the circulation or decide where to form new tumors. Andrew Rhim and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania have developed a technology to label tumor

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