• What is in Transplanted Fecal Microbiota That Cures Clostridium difficile Infection?

What is in Transplanted Fecal Microbiota That Cures Clostridium difficile Infection?

Researchers have identified a microbiota metabolite that is depleted by the antibiotic clindamycin and replaced with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), mediating its effects on recurrent Clostridioides difficile (Clostridium difficile) infection (CDI). Reporting in the November issue of Gastroenterology, the researchers propose that this bacterial metabolite, valerate, might be used in safer and

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  • Effects of Diet, Intestinal Inflammation, and the Microbiome on Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Effects of Diet, Intestinal Inflammation, and the Microbiome on Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Diets that promote intestinal inflammation can increase risk of colorectal carcinomas associated with specific bacteria in the microbiome, researchers report in the October issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Diet-induced intestinal inflammation alters the gut microbiome to contribute to colorectal cancer risk, which might be reduced with dietary changes. Chronic inflammation

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  • Are Prebiotics or Diets Low in FODMAPs Better for Patients With Functional GI Disorders?

Are Prebiotics or Diets Low in FODMAPs Better for Patients With Functional GI Disorders?

Intermittent administration of prebiotics might be an alternative to dietary restrictions for patients with functional gut symptoms, researchers report in the October issue of Gastroenterology. A diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (low-FODMAP diet) reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and patients with gas-related symptoms can significantly

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  • What are the Challenges to In Vitro Maturation of Hepatic Stem Cells?

What are the Challenges to In Vitro Maturation of Hepatic Stem Cells?

New approaches are needed to generate and maintain stable and mature adult liver cells ex vivo. In the April issue of Gastroenterology, Bart Spee and colleagues review factors that promote hepatocyte differentiation and maturation, and consider criteria for establishing whether cells derived from stem cells are fully mature hepatocytes. They discuss challenges to cell transplantation and

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  • Does Asthma Increase Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

Does Asthma Increase Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

A population-based case–control study published in the September issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology associates asthma with later development of Crohn’s disease (CD) and with ulcerative colitis (UC). Although the etiology of asthma and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are not well understood, they both involve complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors and the

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  • What is the Active Ingredient in FMT for CDI?

What is the Active Ingredient in FMT for CDI?

Sterile fecal filtrates—containing bacterial debris, proteins, antimicrobial compounds, metabolic products, and microbial DNA, rather than intact microorganisms—appear to be effective for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), researchers report in the March issue of Gastroenterology. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy of recurrent CDI—a single treatment resolves

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  • Do Relatives of Patients With IBD Also Have Intestinal Dysbiosis?

Do Relatives of Patients With IBD Also Have Intestinal Dysbiosis?

The intestinal microbiota of many healthy, first-degree relatives of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is dysbiotic, signifying a pre-disease state, low-level inflammation, and susceptibility to IBD, researchers report in the November issue of Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Changes in the intestinal microbiome are involved in the pathogenesis

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  • How Could the Intestinal Microbiota Contribute to Celiac Disease?

How Could the Intestinal Microbiota Contribute to Celiac Disease?

Bacteria in the small intestine metabolize gluten differently, to increase or decrease its immunogenicity, researchers report in the October issue of Gastroenterology. This interaction between microbes and gluten could help determine the risk for autoimmune enteropathy in genetically susceptible individuals and underlie the reported association between dysbiosis and celiac disease.

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  • Can Microbial Dysbiosis Cause Colonic Inflammation?

Can Microbial Dysbiosis Cause Colonic Inflammation?

Dysbiosis contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) by altering colonic expression of genes that regulate inflammation and the immune response, researchers report in the July issue of Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. An altered intestinal microbiota composition has been associated with IBD. However, it is not

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  • Genetic Variants Associated with IBD Alter Immune Regulatory Signals from Beneficial Microbes

Genetic Variants Associated with IBD Alter Immune Regulatory Signals from Beneficial Microbes

Polymorphisms in susceptibility genes appear to promote development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) by altering the abilities of immune cells to sense protective signals from the microbiome, researchers report. These findings help fill the missing link between genetic risk variants for IBD and dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome. More than

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