• How Might PPIs Promote C difficile infection?

How Might PPIs Promote C difficile infection?

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) do not have a large effect on microbial diversity of the colon, but do affect specific taxa, including Streptococcaceae and Enterococcaceae, which mediate resistance to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), researchers report in the October issue of Gastroenterology. This finding might provide a mechanism by which these drugs increase risk for CDI.

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  • Special Issue: Food, the Immune System, and the GI Tract

Special Issue: Food, the Immune System, and the GI Tract

The digestion of food and absorption of nutrients is the principal role of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract—everyone wants to know what we should eat and how it affects our body. Interactions between food and the immune system affect our microbiome, development of food allergies, nutrition, risk for inflammatory disorders or cancer, and even

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  • Food Emulsifiers Increase Intestinal Permeability to Promote Inflammation

Food Emulsifiers Increase Intestinal Permeability to Promote Inflammation

Food additives commonly used to thicken and stabilize processed foods disrupt the intestinal microbiota to cause inflammation, researchers found in a study of mice. Emulsifiers are added to foods to hold together mixtures of fat and water, which would otherwise separate. Healthy mice fed a diet containing commonly used emulsifiers (1%

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How Good Gut Microbes Resist Inflammation

Gut commensal bacteria survive inflammation by making a simple switch to their protective coats, researchers show. When harmful microbes like salmonella infect the gut, the innate immune system produces antimicrobial peptides to kill them. But these pathogenic microbes are often similar to the commensal microbes that live in the gut—it was

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  • Author Q and A Series: Alcohol, the Microbiota, and Liver Disease

Author Q and A Series: Alcohol, the Microbiota, and Liver Disease

Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts the intestinal microbiota to reduce production of saturated long-chain fatty acids and subsequently the proportion and functions of hepatoprotective lactobacilli, Peng Chen et al report in the January issue of Gastroenterology. Dietary approaches to restore levels of saturated fatty acids in the intestine might therefore reduce ethanol-induced liver injury in patients with

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  • Microbes go With the Flow (of Oxygen) in the Intestine

Microbes go With the Flow (of Oxygen) in the Intestine

The intestine contains a radial gradient of microbes that changes with the distribution of oxygen and nutrients, researchers report in the November issue of Gastroenterology. Further study of this distribution could provide information about activities of the microbiota in the healthy and inflamed intestine. The bacteria of the intestinal live in

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  • What are the Long-Term Effects of Gastrointestinal Infections During Childhood?

What are the Long-Term Effects of Gastrointestinal Infections During Childhood?

An analysis of children affected by a Salmonella enteritidis outbreak more than 20 years ago provides evidence that pathogen-induced gastroenteritis during childhood is a risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults. The findings from this long-term study are published in the July issue of Gastroenterology. Functional dyspepsia and IBS affect

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  • Special Issue: The Gut Microbiome

Special Issue: The Gut Microbiome

Gastroenterology is proud to present a special issue devoted to ‘The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease’. The human body contains over 10 times more microbial cells than human cells. This microbiome (the commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms that share our body space) maintains the health and function of many

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