• What are the Challenges to In Vitro Maturation of Hepatic Stem Cells?

What are the Challenges to In Vitro Maturation of Hepatic Stem Cells?

New approaches are needed to generate and maintain stable and mature adult liver cells ex vivo. In the April issue of Gastroenterology, Bart Spee and colleagues review factors that promote hepatocyte differentiation and maturation, and consider criteria for establishing whether cells derived from stem cells are fully mature hepatocytes. They discuss challenges to cell transplantation and

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  • Surgical vs Endoscopic Treatment of T1 Esophageal Adenocarcinoma?

Surgical vs Endoscopic Treatment of T1 Esophageal Adenocarcinoma?

Endoscopic therapy of T1a esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) yields more quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and is more cost effective than esophagectomy, shows a Markov model analysis published in the March issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. However, therapy for T1b EAC should be selected based on patients’ age and comorbidities. Although EAC has

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  • Model: Microfabricated Crypt Scaffolds for Studying Human Colon Stem Cells

Model: Microfabricated Crypt Scaffolds for Studying Human Colon Stem Cells

Researchers created an in vitro human colon crypt array that provides an accurate representation of human intestinal crypts, reported in the February issue of Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. This system re-creates an intestinal epithelium with a high density of polarized crypts that respond in a physiologic manner to growth factors, metabolites, or

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  • What can we do with Gastrointestinal Organoids?

What can we do with Gastrointestinal Organoids?

Researchers review the latest discoveries from studies of tissue-derived and pluripotent stem cell–derived intestinal, gastric, esophageal, liver, and pancreatic organoids in the May issue of Gastroenterology. Studies of organoids have provided valuable information about GI development, tissue homeostasis, and disease and might be used to develop personalized medicines. In vitro organoid cultures are

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  • Gut Microbes Affect Extent of Brain Injury After Stroke

Gut Microbes Affect Extent of Brain Injury After Stroke

Altering the intestinal microbiota of mice can reduce the extent of brain damage after a stroke, researchers found. These findings provide a previously unrecognized link between the intestine and the brain. The composition of the intestinal microbiome affects development of the immune system and metabolic processes, and is altered in

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  • An Ex-vivo Model for Electrolyte Transport Along the Small Intestine

An Ex-vivo Model for Electrolyte Transport Along the Small Intestine

Undifferentiated or crypt-like, and differentiated or villus-like, human intestinal enteroids represent distinct points along the crypt–villus axis and can be used to characterize electrolyte transport processes along the small intestine, researchers report in the March issue of Gastroenterology. Studies of their duodenal enteroid model showed that electrogenic Na+/HCO3– cotransporter 1 in the

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  • Hepatitis C Drugs Might be Cost Effective but Demand Could Bust the Healthcare Bank

Hepatitis C Drugs Might be Cost Effective but Demand Could Bust the Healthcare Bank

Treating patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection using recently approved direct-acting agents can be cost effective, but will also have substantial effects on healthcare costs, researchers show. Recently approved drugs cure more than 90% of patients with hepatitis C and could make the liver disease rare in the United

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In Vitro Stomach?

Researchers have developed an advanced, long-term, 3-dimensional organoid culture system for primary, untransformed human gastric epithelium. The system, described in the January issue of Gastroenterology, provides evidence for the presence of stem cells in adult human gastric tissue and can be used to study changes that occur in the gastric epithelium during

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New Ways to Study HCV, Genotypes 3 and 4

Researchers can now study replication of Hepatitis C virus genotypes 3 and 4 in cultured cells, described in 2 articles in the January issue of Gastroenterology. These new tools will improve our understanding of how they cause liver disease, and could lead to new treatments. HCV leads to chronic infection

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New Cell Culture Technology for Colon Cancer and Barrett’s Esophagus

A new method for long-term culture of human primary colonic epithelium provides an important tool for studying colon stem cells, adenocarcinoma, colon cancer, and even Barrett’s esophagus, according to the November issue of Gastroenterology. Self-renewal of the small intestinal and colonic epithelium is mediated by proliferation of stem cells and

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