• Does Asthma Increase Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

Does Asthma Increase Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

A population-based case–control study published in the September issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology associates asthma with later development of Crohn’s disease (CD) and with ulcerative colitis (UC). Although the etiology of asthma and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are not well understood, they both involve complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors and the

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  • Can Microbial Dysbiosis Cause Colonic Inflammation?

Can Microbial Dysbiosis Cause Colonic Inflammation?

Dysbiosis contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) by altering colonic expression of genes that regulate inflammation and the immune response, researchers report in the July issue of Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. An altered intestinal microbiota composition has been associated with IBD. However, it is not

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  • What can we do with Gastrointestinal Organoids?

What can we do with Gastrointestinal Organoids?

Researchers review the latest discoveries from studies of tissue-derived and pluripotent stem cell–derived intestinal, gastric, esophageal, liver, and pancreatic organoids in the May issue of Gastroenterology. Studies of organoids have provided valuable information about GI development, tissue homeostasis, and disease and might be used to develop personalized medicines. In vitro organoid cultures are

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  • What Causes Different Types of Fatty Liver Disease?

What Causes Different Types of Fatty Liver Disease?

Hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis are increasing in prevalence, and can progress to histologically identical, more severe liver disease. They are associated with 3 main factors: alcohol, obesity or metabolic syndrome, and exposure to toxins. Researchers review the similarities, differences, and pathogenic mechanisms of alcohol-associated steatohepatitis (ASH), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and toxicant-associated fatty liver

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  • How to Get Rid of H pylori Infection—And do we Need to?

How to Get Rid of H pylori Infection—And do we Need to?

Helicobacter pylori infection increases risk of gastric cancer, by inducing inflammation and genetic instability in the gastric mucosa. However, it is not clear how best to clear the infection, or even whether H pylori can provide some health benefits. In a Review article in the April issue of Gastroenterology, David Y. Graham discusses the mechanisms H pylori–induced carcinogenesis and

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Are Mitochondria Involved in Ulcerative Colitis?

Changes in mitochondrial DNA that increase levels of ATP in the intestinal mucosa protect mice from colitis, according to the November issue of Gastroenterology. Strategies to increase mitochondrial ATP production by intestinal epithelial cells might therefore be developed to treat patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Characteristics of UC include reduced levels

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Can a microRNA Control Inflammation in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis?

Loss of a non-coding RNA that regulates inflammation could contribute to development of ulcerative colitis (UC) in children, according to the October issue of Gastroenterology. UC and Crohn’s disease are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases that affect adults and children. These diseases are complex, and caused by combinations of genetic and

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How Does PSC Lead to IBD?

Many patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) also have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which becomes more severe after liver transplantation, researchers report in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. These patients might require special immunosuppressive regimens. PSC is a chronic, cholestatic liver disease that eventually leads to cirrhosis

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What is Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma?

Researchers have found that intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) are really 2 different groups of tumors, based on molecular and genetic analyses, reported in the April issue of Gastroenterology. These findings identify class-specific mechanisms of oncogenesis that could lead to new treatment approaches for this common liver cancer. Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most

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A Rare, Autoimmune Cause of Intractable Nausea and Vomiting

Some cases of unexplained, intractable vomiting are caused by an autoimmune disorder in which patients develop antibodies against the brain protein astrocytic aquaporin-4 (AQP4), according to the March issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. AQP4 is a water channel in the central nervous system. Antibodies against AQP4 cause neuromyelitis optica

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