• An Effective and Long-lasting Hepatitis E Vaccine

An Effective and Long-lasting Hepatitis E Vaccine

A long-term study of a hepatitis E virus (HEV) vaccine showed that it is 86.8% effective and that immunity can last for up to 4.5 years. In a blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, Jun Zhang et al randomly assigned 112,604 healthy adults in Dongtai (in the Jiangsu province of China)

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  • Probiotics for Cirrhosis?

Probiotics for Cirrhosis?

A probiotic solution significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for hepatic encephalopathy and markers of liver disease severity in patients with cirrhosis, researchers report in the December issue of Gastroenterology. Hepatic encephalopathy develops in 50%–70% of patients with cirrhosis; fewer than 50% of these patients survive for 1 year. Rifaximin and

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  • UK Aims to Combat Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

UK Aims to Combat Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

The world’s first charity to fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria, formed this month in the UK, aims to raise sufficient funds (estimated at £30m) over the next 5 years to bring at least 1 new antibiotic to the market. Antibiotic Research UK (ANTRUK) has assembled a group of scientific experts from 14

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How Can We Prevent Pancreatic Disease?

Tobacco use, obesity, and heavy use of alcohol are the factors most likely to increase risk for pancreatic diseases, researchers report in the October issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Vegetables and fruit, on the other hand, appear to reduce risk. Strategies to prevent acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic

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  • Celiac Disease Risk Not Affected by Early Diet

Celiac Disease Risk Not Affected by Early Diet

Two studies have shown that neither breastfeeding nor timing the start of gluten-containing foods makes a difference in development of celiac disease in children at risk. The AP reported that the studies, published October 2 in the New England Journal of Medicine, show that there is no early window of

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Video: New Tool Aids Determination of Colonoscopy Surveillance Intervals

With an increased emphasis on improving quality and decreasing costs, new tools are needed to improve adherence to evidence-based practices and guidelines in endoscopy. In a video abstract, Timothy D. Imler describes an automated system that uses natural language processing (NLP) and clinical decision support to facilitate determination of colonoscopy surveillance

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How Does a High-Fat Diet Contribute to Pancreatic Cancer?

A high-fat diet can promote development of pancreatic cancer, but cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitors prevent this process, according to a mouse study published in the December issue of Gastroenterology. The mechanisms appear to involve activation of oncogenic KRAS and upregulation of COX2, which promotes pancreatic inflammation. Increased body mass index and

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Are Patients Who Take Continuous NSAIDs Receiving Gastroprotection?

Among patients who continuously take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a third of co-prescriptions for drugs to prevent gastrointestinal (GI) damage are not renewed within the next 2 years. This discontinuation increases patients’ risk of stomach pain, inflammation, or ulcers, according to the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Patients

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What are the Risks for Relatives of Patients With Colorectal Cancer?

Close relatives of people with colorectal cancer (CRC) have a significant increase in prevalence of advanced neoplasms and should be screened for cancer, according to the March issue of Gastroenterology. Relatives of patients with CRC have been shown to be at increased risk for colorectal neoplasms, but little is known

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Why Does Colonoscopy Protect Against Left-Sided Cancers?

Polyps with advanced pathology are significantly smaller in the right than left colon, and are therefore more likely to be missed during colonoscopy examinations, according to the December issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) is decreasing, in part because colonoscopy screening is increasing, leading to

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