• How Could Lamins Protect Against Steatohepatitis?

How Could Lamins Protect Against Steatohepatitis?

Lamin A/C acts maintains hepatocyte nuclear shape and protects male mice from steatohepatitis by regulating growth hormone signaling and reducing activity of STAT1, researchers report in the November issue of Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. These observations show how variants in genes encoding lamins affect risk for steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. Lamins are nuclear intermediate filament proteins that help form

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  • How Does Transforming Growth Factor beta Suppress Colorectal Tumor Development?

How Does Transforming Growth Factor beta Suppress Colorectal Tumor Development?

Researchers review the mechanisms by which loss of transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) proteins contribute to development and progression of colorectal cancer in the January 2017 issue of Gastroenterology. Development and progression of colorectal cancer involve loss of tumor suppressor proteins, including transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family members. In colon

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  • A Forward Genetic Screen Identifies Suppressors of Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis

A Forward Genetic Screen Identifies Suppressors of Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis

Using 2 powerful high-throughput in vivo screening tools, researchers identified and validated 27 genes as suppressors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), reported in the August issue of Gastroenterology. Their findings support the role of Ras signaling in development of HCC and provide new therapeutic targets. Sorafenib is the only treatment for patients

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  • Can Statin Use After Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer Prolong Survival?

Can Statin Use After Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer Prolong Survival?

Statin use after a diagnosis of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but not esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, reduces esophageal cancer–specific and all-cause mortality, researchers report in the April issue of Gastroenterology. Esophageal cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death in men and eighth most common cause in women, worldwide. Esophageal

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  • What Controls Liver Size?

What Controls Liver Size?

Most people know that liver can regenerate, but how does it know when to stop growing? Liver size is, in part, regulated by the size of the circulating bile acid pool, controlled by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), researchers show in the September issue of Gastroenterology. The mammalian liver can

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  • What Causes Visceral Hypersensitivity in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

What Causes Visceral Hypersensitivity in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

Colon tissues from patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) produce increased levels of specific polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolites, which stimulate sensory neurons to generate visceral hypersensitivity. This occurs via activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels, researchers show in the August issue of Gastroenterology. IBS is characterized by abdominal

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  • How Does Smoking Lead to Pancreatic Cancer?

How Does Smoking Lead to Pancreatic Cancer?

Nicotine promotes pancreatic carcinogenesis by disrupting signaling and transcriptional pathways to cause dedifferentiation of acinar cells, researchers report in the November issue of Gastroenterology. One fourth of all deaths from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are associated with tobacco use, and heavy smoking increases risk for PDAC 6-fold. Although smokers develop PDAC

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A Special Issue: the Exocrine Pancreas and its Disorders

Everything you ever wanted to know about the pancreas, its development and function, and the pathogenesis and treatment of its disorders are now covered in a special issue of Gastroenterology. Pancreatology is a rapidly developing field—recent findings from molecular and genetic studies are being developed into new treatment strategies. To update

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Can Circulating Membrane Vesicles Promote Portal Hypertension?

Patients with cirrhosis have a large amount of circulating membrane vesicles—breakdown products from inflammation and liver cell damage. However, these ‘microparticles’ (MPs) are not simply debris; they contribute to the systemic vasodilation and portal hypertension associated with cirrhosis, according to the July issue of Gastroenterology. Patients with cirrhosis have persistent

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How Does Aspirin Prevent Cancer?

Aspirin blocks proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and causes them to self destruct by inhibiting the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), according to the June issue of Gastroenterology. Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been shown in many studies to reduce risk of cancer—particularly of CRC—by unknown mechanisms.

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