Technology

Is it a Liver Tumor…or Spilled Gallstones?

A man with an abnormal liver mass who was initially believed to have a hepatic tumor was found to have a subphrenic abscess that contained spilled gallstones, shown in a November Image of the Month article in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. As described by Takuma Arai et al., a routine checkup

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Could Intestinal Microbes Reduce Insulin Resistance?

The intestinal microbiota can be manipulated to increase insulin sensitivity in people with metabolic syndrome, according to a study published in the October issue of Gastroenterology. The trillions of microorganisms that reside in the human intestine are important regulators of metabolism. Changes in their composition and metabolic function have been

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A Robot to Remove Gastric Neoplasias

Researchers describe a robotic, flexible endoscopy system that can be safely used to remove early-stage stomach tumors in the October issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an effective technique to remove early-stage gastrointestinal tumors. However, it is difficult to master because it requires submucosal dissection

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Can Antioxidants Reduce Pain from Chronic Pancreatitis?

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial published in the September issue of Gastroenterology found that antioxidants do not reduce pain or improve quality of life in patients with chronic pancreatitis—at least for middle-aged patients with alcohol- or smoking-related disease. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, with loss of normal

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What is the Best Way to Assess Bile Duct Strictures?

Researchers describe new methods to collect and process bile duct biopsies for evaluation of strictures, in the September issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. These approaches should provide a greater quantity of material for analysis and increase the accuracy of diagnosis. A biliary stricture is an abnormal narrowing of the

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Transplanting Engineered Mucosal Tissue into the Esophagus

Researchers have engineered tissues from oral epithelial cells that can be transplanted into the esophagus and promote healing after tumors are removed. According to the September issue of Gastroenterology, sutureless, endoscopic transplantation of sheets of autologous oral mucosal epithelial cells safely and effectively promotes re-epithelialization of the esophagus after surgery.

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Does Menopause Affect Outcomes from Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery?

Estradiol increases body weight loss and satiation effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in ovariectomized rats, according to the August issue of Gastroenterology. Approximately ~85% of bariatric surgery procedures are performed on women, but little is known about the effects of menopause or reproductive hormones, such as estrogen, on outcomes.

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Causes and Treatment of Very-Early Onset IBD

Many infants with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have genetic defects that disrupt IL-10 signaling, according to the August issue of Gastroenterology. However, these children can be successfully treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, researchers report. IBD develops mostly in adolescents and young adults, but can occur in very young

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Which Direction is Best for Enteroscopy?

Antegrade is better than retrograde enteroscopy in diagnosis and treatment of patients with small bowel disease, according to the August issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Single and double balloon-assisted enteroscopy (SBE and DBE), and spiral enteroscopy (which uses a screw-like overtube), are used to evaluate and treat patients with

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Can Circulating Membrane Vesicles Promote Portal Hypertension?

Patients with cirrhosis have a large amount of circulating membrane vesicles—breakdown products from inflammation and liver cell damage. However, these ‘microparticles’ (MPs) are not simply debris; they contribute to the systemic vasodilation and portal hypertension associated with cirrhosis, according to the July issue of Gastroenterology. Patients with cirrhosis have persistent

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